An analysis of leadership styles and practices among Korean senior pastors
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The purpose of this study was to explore the leadership styles, practices, and influential factors contributing to the leadership styles and practices among Korean senior pastors based on transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership. Quantitative and qualitative research were employed in this study for data gathering and analysis in light of the research questions. Quantitative research was employed for exploring the leadership style preferences among Korean senior pastors. The instrument for data gathering of the leadership style preferences was the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles were identified by using this instrument. This instrument assisted the leader to know which characteristic is dominant in transformational leadership. The four characteristics of transformational leadership were idealized influence, inspirational stimulation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration. Qualitative research was employed in order to explore the leadership practices and factors which have influenced leadership development among Korean senior pastors. A case study was conducted in order to analyze the leadership practices and influential factors among Korean senior pastors. Semi-structured interviews, observations, and document research were conducted for data gathering in this case study. As a result, Korean senior pastors preferred Inspirational Motivation (visionary leadership). There was, however, no significant difference between Inspirational Motivation (visionary leadership) and Idealized Influence (charismatic leadership), Inspirational Motivation and Intellectual Stimulation (creative leadership), and Idealized Influence and Intellectual Stimulation. Leadership practices for Idealized Influence were to exhibit a willingness to sacrifice in personal lives for the benefit of church and society and to be for crisis management: in addition, personal and spiritual lives served as a servant. The leadership practices for Inspirational Motivation were to conceive a vision for bring up lay people and the vision for Christian school. The leadership practices for Intellectual Stimulation were an ability to conquer a poor pastoral environment, endeavors for overcoming the boundary of denomination, endeavors for contextualization, and the trials for having church be the center of local community. The leadership practices for Individual Consideration were the efforts for team ministry and considering women in church leadership. Factors which contributed to leadership styles and practices were personal relationship with God, the relationship with significant person (mentoring relationship), the situations surrounding the pastoral environment, endeavors toward self-development, crises experiences. Formal curriculum in theological education, however, was not mentioned as an important factor contributing to leadership styles and practices.